విశాఖపట్టణం

 

Visakhapatnam

17°41′18.16″N 83°13′07.53″ECoordinates

Country

India

State

Andhra Pradesh

Region

Coastal Andhra

District

Visakhapatnam

Area

• Total

 544 km2 (210 sq mi)

Elevation

 5 m (16 ft)

Population (2009)

• Total

17,30,520

• Rank

17th urban population = 20,00,000

• Density

3,240/km2(8,400/sq mi)

 Languages

• Official

Telugu

Time zone

IST (UTC+5:30)

PIN

530 0XX 531 1XX

Telephone code

+91-891-XXX XXXX

 Vehicle registration

AP31 – 34

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Visakhapatnam (popularly known as Vizag) is a port city on the southeast coast of India. With a population of 1,730,520, it is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh (after Hyderabad) and the third largest city on the east coast (afterChennai and Kolkata). Visakhapatnam is located 625 kilometres (388 mi) east of the state capital, Hyderabad. The city is home to several state-owned heavy industries and a steel plant; it is one of India's largest seaports and has the country's oldest shipyard. Visakhapatnam has the only natural harbour on the east coast of India.

 

The city was named after Visakha, the Hindu god of valour. It is nestled among the hills of the Eastern Ghats and faces the Bay of Bengal on the east. Visakhapatnam is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and headquarters of the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy. Visakhapatnam has been nicknamed The City of Destiny and, more recently, the Goa of the East Coast. LikeGoa, it has attractive beaches, laterite hillocks and a pleasing landscape. It is also a focus of urban and tourist development.

 

VIZAG TIME LINE

260 BCE

Ashoka conquered the Kalinga empire (of which Vizag was a part).

208 A.D.

Chandra Sri Satakarni was king of this region.

14th Century

Simhachalam Temple built.

1515 A.D.

Krishna Deva Raya was ruler of the area comprising Vizag.

17th Century

A factory was founded in "Vizagapatam" by the British East India Company.

1689

This factory was occupied by the forces of Aurangzeb.

1735

Dutch Colony was established.

1765

The territory of the Northern Circars, of which Vizag was a part, ceded to the East India Company on dissolution of the Moghul Empire. Following this, a British colony was established.

1803

District made a Collectorate.

1858

Municipal Association started in Vizag.

1866

It became Vizag Municipality.

1876

Original Light house on Dolphin's Nose knocked down in a cyclone.

1877

Chapel built on Ross Hill. Now known as 'Hill Chapel'.

1904

Railway from Madras to Calcutta, passing through 'Vizagapatam' was opened.

1926

Andhra University established.

7th Oct, 1933

Visakhapatnam Port established.

1935

First private four wheeler registered, number MDV 5, later on changed to APB 5.

6th April, 1942

Japanese war planes attack Vizag.

1947

Eastern Naval Command established its base here. Prior to our independence the Royal Navy had set up its base here in HMIS Circars.

1949

Scindia Shipyard started. Later nationalised and called Hindustan Shipyard.

1957

Refinery started by Caltex.

1957

Light house re-built on Dolphin's Nose.

1976

Outer Harbour inaugurated.

1979

Visakhapatnam upgraded to Municipal Corporation.

1981

Visakhapatnam Steel Plant commenced operations.

2006

Visakhapatnam Becomes Greater Visakhapatnam.

 

Overview :

In addition to being an east-coast seaport, Visakhapatnam is an industrial city. Part of the city is known by its colonial British name, Waltair; during the colonial era, the city's hub was the Waltair railway station and the surrounding part of the city is still called Waltair.

Etymology and history:                        

Visakhapatnam was a part of the Kalinga Kingdom under Ashoka's rule in 260 BC, and until the 16th century AD it was part of the Utkala Kingdom. The city passed later to the Andhra Kings of Vengi and after that to the Pallavas. Another story is it was named after Subrahmanyeswara, the deity of valour and second son of Lord Shiva. His beauty was compared to that of Sakhi Visakha. Legend has it that Radha and Visakha were born on the same day, and were equally beautiful. Local residents believe that an Andhra king, impressed by their beauty, built a temple to pay homage to his family deity Visakha.

 

Epic city :

Visakhapatnam was mentioned in the Indian epics Rāmāyana in the forests of the Eastern Ghats where the two brothers, Rama and Lakshmana, wandered in search of Sita (wife of Lord Rama). According to the epics, Rama formed his army of monkey men in the region with the help ofHanuman and Jambavant. His monkey army later defeated King Ravan to regain his wife, Sita.

 

Buddhist influence

 

Hindu texts state that during the fifth century BC, the Visakhapatnam region was part of Kalinga territory, which extended to the Godavari River. Relics found in the area also prove the existence of a Buddhist empire in the region. Kalinga later lost the territory to King Ashoka in the bloodiest battle of its time, which prompted Ashoka to embrace Buddhism. Visakhapatnam is surrounded by ancient Buddhist sites, most of which have been excavated recently and illustrate the legacy of Buddhism in the area.

 

Pavurallakonda

Pavurallakonda ("pigeon hill") is a hillock west of Bhimli, about 24 km (15 mi) from Visakhapatnam. The Buddhist settlement found here is estimated to date back from the first century BC to the second century AD. On the hillock (which overlooks the coastline) are 16 rock-cut cisterns for collecting rainwater. Gopalapatnam, on the Tandava River, is a village surrounded by brick stupas, viharas, pottery and other Buddhist artefacts.

 

Sankaram

In 1907 British archaeologist Alexander Rea unearthed Sankaram, a 2,000-year-old Buddhist site. The name "Sankaram" derives from the Sangharama(temple or monastery). Located 40 km (25 mi) south of Visakhapatnam, it is known locally as Bojjannakonda and is a significant Buddhist site in Andhra Pradesh. The three major schools of Buddhism (Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana) flourished here. The complex is known for its monolithicstupas, rock-cut caves and brick structures. The primary stupa was initially carved out of rock and covered with bricks. Excavations yielded historic pottery and Satavahana coins from the first century AD. At Lingalakonda, there are also rock-cut monolithic stupas in rows spread over the hill. The vihara was active for about 1,000 years.

 

Nearby is another Buddhist site, Bojjannakonda, with a number of images of the Buddha carved on the rock face of the caves. At Ligalametta there are hundreds of rock-cut monolithic stupas in rows, spread across the hill. Among other Buddhist attractions are a relic casket, three chiatya halls  votive platforms, stupas and Vajrayana sculptures.

Bavikonda

Bavikonda is an important Buddhist heritage site located on a hill about 15 km, northeast from Visakhapatnam city. Here the Buddhist habitation is noticed on a 16 ha flat terraced area. The Hinayana school of Buddhism was practised at the monastery between the 3rd century B.C. and the 3rd century A.D. Bavikonda has remains of an entire Buddhist complex, comprising 26 structures belonging to three phases. A piece of bone stored in an urn recovered here is believed to belong to the mortal remains of the Budda. The word Bavikonda in Telugu means "a hill of wells". Fitting its name, Bavikonda is a hill with wells for the collection of rainwater. It is located 15 km (9.3 mi) from Visakhapatnam and is a significant Buddhist site. Excavation carried out from 1982–1987 revealed a Buddhist establishment including a mahachaitya embedded with relic caskets, a large vihara complex, numerous votive stupas, a stone-pillared congregation and rectangular halls and a refectory. Artifacts recovered from the site include Roman and Satavahana coins and pottery dating from the third century BC to the second century AD. A significant finding was a piece of bone (with a large quantity of ash) in an urn, which is believed to be the remains of the Buddha. The Bavikonda site is considered one of the oldest Buddhist sites in Asia. It is a reminder of the Buddhist civilisation which once existed in southern India, and also reminiscent of Borobudur in Indonesia.

Thotlakonda

About 16 km (9.9 mi) from Visakhapatnam is Thotlakonda, a Buddhist complex situated on top of a hill. The Buddhist Complex on the Mangamaripeta hilltop, locally known as Thotlakonda, lies about 16 km from Visakhapatnam on Visakhapatnam-Bheemili Beach Road. After its discovery (during an aerial survey), the Government of A.P declared the 48 ha site as a protected monument in 1978. Excavations in 1988 to 1992 exposed structural remains and artefacts, classified as Religious, Secular and Civil. These structures include the Stupa, Chaityagrihas, pillared congregation halls, bhandagaras, refectory (bhojanasala), drainage and stone pathways. The site covers an area of 120 acres (49 hectares), and has been declared a protected area by the government of Andhra Pradesh. Excavations have revealed three kinds of structural remains: religious, secular and civil. Structures include a mahastupa, sixteen votive stupas, a stone-pillared congregation hall, eleven rock-cut cisterns, well-paved stone pathways, anapsidal chaitya-griha, three round chaitgya-grihas, two votive platforms, ten viharas and a kitchen complex with three halls and a refectory (dining hall). Apart from the structures, Buddhist treasures excavated include nine Satavahana and five Roman silver coins, terracotta tiles, stucco decorative pieces, sculptured panels, miniature stupa models in stone, Buddha padas depicted with asthamangal symbols (i.e. the eight auspicious symbols of Swastika, Shrivasta, Nandhyavarta, Vardhamanaka, Bhadrasana, Kalasha, Minyugala and Darpan) and early pottery.

Later history

 

The territory of Visakhapatnam then came under the Andhra rulers of Vengi, and Chalukyas and Pallavas ruled the land. The region was ruled by theEastern Ganga king Surya Vamsi and the Gajapati kings of Odisha from the 10th century to the 16th centuries AD (when the region came under the Hyderabad rulers). Based on archaeological evidence, the Chola kings and the Eastern Ganga Kings of Odisha built temples in the city in the 11th and 12th centuries. The Mughals ruled the area under the Hyderabad Nizam during the late 15th and early 16th centuries. European merchants from France, Holland and the East India Company used the natural port to export tobacco, paddy, coal, iron ore, ivory, muslin and other textile products.

Local legend tells that an Andhra king, on his way to Benares, rested at Visakhapatnam and was so enchanted by its beauty that he ordered a temple to be built in honour of his family deity, Visakha. Archaeological sources, however, reveal that the temple was probably built between the 11th and 12th centuries by the Cholas. A shipping merchant, Sankarayya Chetty, built one of the mandapams (pillared halls) of the temple. Although it no longer exists (possibly washed away about 100 years ago by a cyclonic storm), elderly residents of Visakhapatnam remember visits to the ancient shrine by their grandparents (although author Ganapatiraju Atchuta Rama Raju denies this).[3]

During the 18th century Visakhapatnam was part of the Northern Circars, a region comprising coastal Andhra and southern coastal Odisha which was first under French control and later British. Visakhapatnam became a district in the Madras Presidency of British India. In September 1804, British and French squadrons fought the naval Battle of Vizagapatam near the harbour. After India's independence it was the largest district in the country, and was subsequently divided into the districts of SrikakulamVizianagaram and Visakhapatnam.

Demographics:

Visakhapatnam is a cosmopolitan mix of people from various parts of India. From a population of a few thousand during the 18th and early 19th centuries, the population grew steadily. The city doubled its population from 1990–2000, due to a large migrant population from surrounding areas and other parts of the country coming to work in its factories.

 

According to the 2011 India census, the population of Visakhapatnam in 2011 was 3789820, of which 1903890 were male and 1885920 were female. The sex ratio of Visakhapatnam city was 977 females per 1000 males. In the education section, the total literate population in Visakhapatnam city was 1,298,896, of which 698,959 were males while 599,937 were females. The average literacy rate of Visakhapatnam city was 82.66 percent, of which male and female literacy were 88.02 and 77.18 percent respectively. There were 158,924 children ages 0 to 6 in Visakhapatnam city as of 2011. There were 81,119 boys while 77,805 were girls. The child sex ratio was 959 girls per 1000 boys. 10 percent of the population was under age six. Visakhapatnam is ranked 122 in the list of fastest-growing cities in the world.

 

Hinduism is practised by the majority of its citizens, followed by Islam and Christianity. The area practised Buddhism for two millennia, as evidenced by the many Buddhist sangharamas in the outlying areas; currently, however, the population of Buddhists has waned. There is little religious tension.

 

Language:

Visakhapatnam is predominantly Telugu-speaking. The Telugu spoken by the middle class is the standard dialect, while a significant population who have settled down in the city from the adjoining villages and neighbouring districts of East GodavariVizianagaram and Srikakulam speak theUttarandhra (north coastal) Mandalikam dialects.

Historians theorise that centuries ago (when Uttarandhra was part of the Kalinga Empire), Buddhist missionaries and merchants may have taken Telugu script (derived from Brahmi script) to Southeast Asia from the shores of Uttarandhra, where it evolved into the scripts

of MonBurmeseThaiKhmer,JavaneseBalinese and possibly Sinhala (spoken in Sri Lanka). Their similarities to Telugu script can be discerned even today.

Visakhapatnam is home to small PunjabiGujaratiOriyaBengaliNepali and Malayalee communities; their arrival is recent, due to the Naval presence and high concentration of public-sector employers. There is also an Anglo-Indian community. Many residents also speak English and Hindi, which facilitates communication between tourists and local people.

 

Climate:

Visakhapatnam has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw), with little change in temperature throughout the year. May is the hottest month with an average maximum temperature about 36 °C (97 °F), and January is the coolest month with an average maximum temperature near 29 °C (84 °F).

With the city's location on the Bay of Bengal, the humidity is high throughout the year. Total annual rainfall is about 945 millimetres (37.2 in), most of which falls during the southwest monsoon. October is the wettest month, with about 204 millimetres (8.0 in) of rainfall. November through February is the best time to visit Visakhapatnam weather-wise, since temperatures are moderate.

Economy

From a hamlet of local fishing communities during the early days of the Indian independence struggle and a few decades later, Visakhapatnam grew economically; the rise has been so quick that the city was identified as one of the fastest-growing in the world, economically and demographically. Several factors contributed to its economic growth, including the natural harbour, its location between Madras and Calcutta, access to NH5 and a developed network of railways which changed the hamlet into an industrial city. It has developed into a hub for heavy industry. The Visakhapatnam Port (the largest in the country) was a gateway contributing to the development of the petroleum, steel and fertiliser industries. The Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (recently expanded from 3.1 to 6.3 million ton in its daily cargo handling capacity) and Hindustan Petroleum were the two multi-billion-dollar investments that put Visakhapatnam on the industrial map. The city has two N.T.P.C. power plants to fill its power needs. Visakhapatnam also hosts the headquarters of the Dredging Corporation of India.

It is a hub for iron ore and other mineral exports; ore from Andhra PradeshOdishaChattisgarh, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh is transported to Visakhapatnam by rail and road transport. From the port, minerals are exported by ship to China and other countries. Visakhapatnam district and its surrounding area have bauxite reserves of 1,000 MT, manganese ore and titanium reserves in its beach sand.

Visakhapatnam also owes its economic growth to the availability of an educated English-speaking workforce; English is the first language in many institutions of higher education in the city. The availability of an educated workforce allowed information technology enabled services (ITES) companies such as Encore India HSBC, IBM Daksh, Sutherland and Acclaris to flourish. The city has 102 small and medium software and call-centre companies, of which about 10 began operations from 2005–2007. Software exports from Visakhapatnam in 2007 were worth INR2450 million (US$45 million) and INR5020 million (US$92 million) in 2008, INR10 billion (US$184 million) in 2011 – an increase of nearly 90% each year.The IT exports from Vizag for 2012 were 1200Crores and 16000ppl were working in IT industry in Vizag .The city is set to have New Electronic Manufacturing Hub.

National and international IT and banking firms (such as IBM, Mahindra Satyam, Kenexa, Infotech, Softsol, and Miracle Software,Wipro) have opened offices in the city. The Andhra Pradesh government provided infrastructure and land for these companies to set up their development centres in the city's outskirts. The government has established an IT special economic zone with Incubation center in the Rushikonda Hills in Visakhapatnam. The growing population and economy have resulted in rising real estate prices, with prices at some locations in the city quadrupling in a short time. Real-estate companies are building housing projects in the city's outskirts.

Visakhapatnam has a growing film industry, and is home to Ramanaidu Studios and another studios.

Many residential townships are coming up in this area. This initiative by property developers will extend the CBD of VIZAG up to 10 km from the base point.

The fishing industry is also growing, with domestic and exported tuna doubling in a decade. The city has two ports: Visakhapatnam Port (opened in 1933) and Gangavaram Port (opened in 2008, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Visakhapatnam Port). Gangavaram Port began with an investment of US$2 billion; it is the deepest port in the country, with the ability to handle large international vessels. Visakhapatnam Port is also expanding and plans to open a satellite port at Bhimili, 20 kilometres (12 mi) away.

Visakhapatnam has the Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (APIIC) special economic zone (covering 5,770 acres (23.4 km2) and occupied by WS Industries, Pokarna Limited, Uniparts, Confidence Petroleum, Southern Online Bio, Nagarjuna AgriChem, Anjaney Alloys, Maithon Alloys and Abhijit Ferro Alloys) at Autonagar, Atchutapuram. A railway line is under construction connecting the industrial zone with the Gangavaram Port. The Visakhapatnam Special Economic Zone began in 1989; exports from the VSEZ totalled approximately INR15820 million (US$291 million) in 2011.

 

Brandix Apparel City is in operation in Atchutapuram. This is a textile-based SEZ covering 1,000 acres (4.0 km2). The aim of this project is to provide 60,000 local jobs. It is expected that exports will reach INR55 billion (US$1 billion) when fully operational. The SEZ has foreign textile manufacturers, including Pioneer Elastic Fiber, Ocean India, Quantum Clothing, Fountain Set Group and Limited Brands.

Pilkington (an automotive-glass manufacturer) and Jawaharlal Nehru Pharma City (JNPC) are also in Visakhapatnam. JNPC is the only pharmaceutical SEZ in India, with 38 pharmaceutical companies including PharmaZell of Germany and Eisai Pharma of Japan. U.S.-based Hospira Chemicals has purchased land for a plant in the city.

 

 

Companies such as Reliance, Brandix and HPCL have purchased areas in special economic zones (SEZs) for their industries. Aluminium refineries (such as Anrak Aluminium and Jindal Aluminium) are developing in Visakhapatnam because of the bauxite reserves around the city. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) plans its second research facility in the country (after Trombay) in the area. Visakhapatnam was one of five sites in the country selected to hold strategic crude-oil reserves in case of a national emergency.

Other industries include Hindustan ZincGAIL, IOC Bottling Unit, BPCL Bottling Unit, Synergies Castings, Rain Calcining Limited, Coromandel Fertilizers, Hindustan Ship Yard, Bharat Heavy Plate and Vessels Limited (BHPV), Visakha Dairy, Vizag Profiles, Essar Pellet Plant, Andhra Polymers (now LG Polymers), Andhra Cement, Andhra Petrochemicals and Andhra Ferroalloys. The prevalence of ferroalloy plants is due to the availability of manganese ore near Visakhapatnam. The city is the headquarters for the Waltair division of the East Coast Railway. The division generated INR34830 million (US$641 million) in revenue in 2009–2010, one of the highest-grossing industries in the country.[18]

 

Visakhapatnam's traditional importance in shipbuilding is demonstrated by the fact that India's first ship (theJala Usha) was launched there. It is one of India's largest fishing ports, has a dedicated harbour for the fishing industry and handles a large percentage of India's seafood exports.

The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (the second centre in India, after Mumbai) is completing a permanent facility in Autonagar which will include a school dedicated to nuclear-power technology. Visakhapatnam also has offices of the National Institute of Oceanography and the Indian Meteorological Department.

APIIC has authorised Unitech Limited to construct a Knowledge City on an area of 700 hectares (2.7 sq mi), with an investment of INR350 billion (US$6 billion). Although with Unitech Limited being involved in the 2G spectrum scam, the Andhra Pradesh government has scrapped the plan as of June 2012; future course of action is unkwnown.

 

Business climate

 

From a small village in the 20th century, Visakhapatnam has grown into an industrial hub. The British needed a suitable port to move mineral wealth from central India. Unlike the western coast, the east coast is devoid of natural harbours. However, Visakhapatnam is protected from the sea on the south by Dolphin's Nose Hill; the Meghadri River estuary formed a channel which made it suitable for a port. Construction on the harbour began in 1927, and in 1933 it was opened to traffic.

 

A milestone was the establishment of the Scindia Steam Navigation Company (later known as Hindustan Shipyard Limited) in 1940. With the construction of the Kottavalasa-Kirandul (K.K.) line connecting the iron-ore mines in Bailadila, Madhya Pradesh (present-day Chattisgarh), its importance grew. During the 1950s and 1960s the government and the private sector set up large-scale industries such as Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels, Hindustan Zinc, Dredging Corporation of India, the Caltex oil refinery (later acquired by the government as Hindustan Petroleum), Coromandel International and Andhra Polymers (now LG Polymers). The 1980s saw development of the Visakhapatnam Steel Plant and other industries. Economic liberalisation during the 1990s brought modest growth to the city but not as much as it did to Hyderabad. However, industries such as Rain Calcining and the Simhadri Thermal Power plant of NTPC Limited were established, Hindustan Petroleum expanded and the Visakhapatnam Export Processing Zone was established. Visakhapatnam was named as one of the ten fastest-growing cities of the world in a recent[when?] study by United Nations. In its extensive survey on next generation of top ten business destinations across the country, Cushman & Wakefield has discovered Vizag as one of the ideal business destinations

Due to the presence of the Eastern Naval Command, Vizag Steel Plant and Hindustan Petroleum, the city is home to people from around the country and is cosmopolitan. Visakhapatnam's main commercial and shopping centres are in the Dwarakanagar, R.T.C. complex and Jagadamba Junction areas. It has two multiplexes: Varun Beach and CMR Central. Since 2000, the Dwarakanagar-R.T.C. complex area has become a commercial hub with shopping centres in a 2–3 kilometre radius. The city is home to five-star hotels, such as NovotelTaj group, ITC-WelcomGroup, Four Points by Sheraton and Park Hotels.

 

Software and business process outsourcing (BPO) companies have announced plans for development and outsourcing centres in Visakhapatnam, which has contributed to a rise in real-estate prices. An influx of non-resident Indians (NRIs) to Visakhapatnam have further added to this rise.

Its skilled workforce allowed the entry of many BPO companies (such as HSBC). Visakhapatnam is experiencing growth in the IT sector, contributing to the local economy. The city has 102 small and medium-sized software and BPO companies, of which about 10 began operation between 2005–2007. Software exports from Visakhapatnam in 2007 were valued at INR2450 million (US$45 million), an increase of over 100 percent over the previous year.

 

St Aloysius Anglo Indian High School (SAS) was established in the year 1847 in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.

National and international IT and banking firms have established offices in the city, including Mahindra SatyamWipro, iSOFT, HSBC Sankhya Technologies, iFlex, Sutherland Global Services, Kenexa, E Centric Solutions and OpenWindow Technologies IBM. The Andhra Pradesh government provided infrastructure and land for these companies to open development centres on the outskirts of Visakhapatnam, with special economic zones to improve employment and increase economic growth.

City-based small and medium enterprises (SMEs) (such as Media Systems,Gaian Solutions, Acclaris, Manuh Solutions, NuNet Technologies, Patra Corp, Prospecta Technologies, Quant Systems, Sankhya Technologies, Samudra Software, Symbiosys Technologies, Xinthe Technologies) and softscripts provide IT and BPO services. Some of these companies have formed an association called Vizag information technology Association (VITA) to promote IT in Visakhapatnam and bridge the industry-school gap. To help companies in and around Visakhapatnam fill their workforces, companies such as IndiGenius and Mafoi provide human-resource services such as recruitment, temporary staffing and training.

Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, featuring some of the rarest species in India, opened in 1972 on the coastal hills north of the city.

 

Visakhapatnam has a steel plant known as VSP or RINL. The capacity of the plant has been upgraded to 6.3MT, and it covers an area of 20,000 acres (81 km2). It is planned to become a 20MT plant in the future, the largest plant in a single location. The plant had revenues of INR144570 million (US$3 billion) for 2011–2012 and has about 17,800 employees.

The township for plant employees is Ukkunagaram (ukku means steel and nagaram is town in Telugu). The designers of the township followed a Roman circular design for the layout of homes and roads to keep distances equal between any two points within the township. There are 12 sectors; the oldest are sectors 1, 2 and 3, and sector 7 is the domain of the directors and chairman. The newest is sector 12, which is available for senior officers. Other sectors were built as the plant's staff increased. Each sector consists of about 300 housing units, varying from three-floor apartment houses to single-family homes. There are also bungalows for plant directors. There are five types of housing units: types A through D and the bungalows. Sector one housed Russian workers who built the first blast furnace (Godavari), the RMHP, Sinter and coke-oven batteries one and two. Ukkunagaram is in a forest belt, running from the Valleys of Araku through Elamanchili to Narsipatnam. Forestry by management has resulted in a green environment. The township has roads, markets, parks, clubs and sports facilities for employees and their families. The Kanithi Reservoir (between the town and the NH5) provides water for the plant and Ukkunagaram. It draws its water from a canal running from the Yeleru River, a tributary of the Godavari River.

The road that leads from the plant plaza main gate into the township actually travels ahead as a bypass to the busy NH5 and skips Anakapalli directly to Elamanchili and Tuni, cutting almost 30 km on the road route from Visakhapatnam to Vijayawada.

Projects:

Hindujas has begun construction of a 1,070-MW thermal power plant in Visakhapatnam district at a cost of INR70 billion (US$1 billion), and HPCL is expanding the Visakh Refinery from 7.5 to 15 MT with an investment of INR130 billion (US$2 billion). NTPC-Simhadri is expanding from 1,000 to 2,000 MW at a cost of INR50 billion (US$920 million), and the Visakhapatnam Steel Plant has completed its expansion from 3.1 to 6.3 MT with an investment of INR90 billion (US$2 billion). The Visakhapatnam Port is expanding (at a cost of INR30 billion (US$552 million)) to increase its capacity to 80 MT per year.

Visakhapatnam is a part of the PCPIR (Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region) proposed between Visakhapatnam and Kakinada. The PCPIR is expected to generate 1.2 million jobs and a projected investment of ₨34,30,000 million.

There is an additional project that is currently going on in Atchutapuram. It will be India's first rare earths (minerals) extraction plant. The company is basically owned by Toyotsu Rare Earth India Ltd. (Partners of Toyota).

Busiest centres in Vizag:

With the growing population, Visakhapatnam has turned from a fishing village into a commercial city with busy streets. Some of the busy areas of the city include Jagadamba center, Dwarakanagar, NAD'X'Roads, Dabagardens, Akkayapalem, Maddilapalem, Gajuwaka, MVP colony, Siripuram Junction and Madhurawada. Some of the congestion is expected to come down on the completion of a fly over road (currently in construction) connecting RTC Complex and Waltair Station Approach Road.

 

Visakhapatnam has a range of tourist attractions including beaches, cliffs, hilltop parks facing the sea, a beach road, a zoological park and wildlife sanctuary, a submarine museum, hill stations, limestone caves, mountain ranges and valleys within a 100-kilometre (62 mi) radius of the city. There are three five-star hotels (the Taj, the Park and the world famous Novotel) and a range of other accommodations.

Kailasagiri is a hilltop park adjacent to the sea which offers views of the Bay of Bengal, Visakhapatnam and the Eastern Ghats. An aerial tramway accesses the park from the bottom of the hill. Beach Road, from the East Point colony to the coastal battery, is dotted with parks and statues and is an evening gathering point. On the road is India's only submarine museum (the INS Kursura), the Visakha Museum and Matsyadarsini (an aquarium). VUDA park, at the beginning of Beach Road, has a musical fountain, entertainment for children and a roller rink which has hosted national and international skating competitions

Rushikonda Beach, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the city, is a popular evening spot. The 30-kilometre (19 mi) Bhimili-Visakhapatnam Beach Road offers views of sea, sand, hills and greenery. Many parks are located on this road. Tenneti Beach Park is on the cliff of Kailasagiri; there are several points from which the rocky beach beneath can be seen, and a number of Telugu, Tamil and Hindi movies were filmed here.Rama Naidu Film Studios is located in Visakhapatnam.

Simhachalam is a hill shrine of Lord Narasimha 16 km (9.9 mi) north of the city. The carved 16-pillared Natyamandapa and the 96-pillared Kalyana mandapa are highlights of the temple. It was constructed by the Gajapathi kings of Odisha before 1500 AD. Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju was a descendant of Maharaja Vijayrama Gajapati Raju, bahadur of the former Vizianagaram princely state.[citation needed]

Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, between National Highway 5 and Beach Road, covers an area of 250 hectares (620 acres); it has about 700 animals from about 90 species.

The Araku Valley, 112 km (70 mi) from Visakhapatnam, is a tourist destination. The Araku hill station is at an elevation of over 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and known for its gardens, valleys, waterfalls and streams. On the way to the Araku hill station are the Borra Caves, which were discovered by British geologist William King in 1807. The Marriage Bureau For Rich People series of novels, written by Farahad Zama and published internationally in 13 languages, are set in Visakhapatnam and feature landmarks of the city and its surroundings.

Sports:

 

 

ACA-VDCA Cricket stadium at Madhurawada

Cricket is the most popular sport, followed by tennis and football. Visakhapatnam is home to a number of local cricket teams participating in district and zone matches. Gully cricket (a form of cricket played in streets or parks) is a popular pastime for local youth. Visakhapatnam co-hosted the 32ndNational Games with the state capital, Hyderabad. The city has seven cricket stadiums, which are used for Ranji Trophy matches; two of these stadiums have been used for one day international matches. Some of these stadiums are:

  • Indira Priyadarshini Stadium (five ODI matches): Also known as the Municipal Corporation Stadium, it hosted the first ODI match on 9 December 1988 and the last of the five on 3 April 2001. The stadium has discontinued hosting ODI matches in favour of the newer ACA-VDCA Stadium in Madhurawada. The stadium is in the hills, and provides a scenic view.It also hosted the Twenty-20 match, but was abonded due to rain.
  • ACA-VDCA Stadium (four ODI matches): The ACA-VDCA Stadium has hosted four ODIs, with India winning against Pakistan in the first, Sri Lankain the second, Australia in the third and the West Indies in the fourth. The stadium has been upgraded for night matches. It has the most advanced floodlights in India, after Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Kochi. The stadium was recently named the YS Rajasekhara Reddy Stadium.
  • A T20 match was scheduled between India and New Zealand and was abandoned due to rain.
  • Port Trust Golden Jubilee Stadium: Second-largest stadium in Visakhapatnam, which has hosted Under-19 Youth Internationals

Visakhapatnam has not hosted a test match; however, the ACA-VDCA Stadium was recently awarded test status—the ninth stadium with test status in the country, and the second in Andhra Pradesh.

 

Education :

 

ANDHRA UNIVERSITY


      Andhra University is not just one of the oldest educational institutions in the country, but is also the first to be conceived as a residential and teaching-cum-affiliating University, mainly devoted to post-graduate teaching and research.

      The people of the State have an emotional attachment to the institution, since it came into being after a prolonged and collective struggle of the Telugu elite for a University in the educationally backward northern Circars and Ceded districts of the erstwhile Madras Presidency.

      Andhra University was constituted in the year 1926 by the Madras Act of 1926. The 86-year-old institution is fortunate to have Sir C.R. Reddy as its founder Vice-Chancellor, as the steps taken by this visionary proved to be fruitful in the long run. 

      Former President of India Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was one of its Vice-Chancellors who succeed Dr. C. R. Reddy in 1931. The University College of Arts was inaugurated on 1 st July, 1931.  The inaugural courses were Telugu language and literature, History, Economics and Politics.  A year later, the College of Science and Technology came into being with Honours courses in Physics and Chemistry.   The University pioneered in introducing many new courses in Science, Arts, Management and Engineering in the country.

 

      The leaders of the university always believed that excellence in higher education is the best investment for the country and   engaged the services of famous educationists such as Dr. T.R. Seshadri, Dr. S. Bhagavantham, Professor Hiren Mukherjee, Professor Humayan Kabir and Dr. V.K.R.V. Rao, to mention a few who set high standards for teaching and research. Nobel Lariat C V Raman was the proud alumnus of the University and closely associated in laying research foundations in Physics. Padmavibhushan Prof. C R Rao, the renowned statistician of the world, was also the proud alumnus of the University.

 

      Keeping in pace with the global needs and challenges under the leadership and guidance of successive Vice-chancellors, the University is offering several new Courses of relevance and Contemporary significance.

 

      Ever since its inception in 1926 Andhra University has an impeccable record of catering to the educational needs and solving the sociological problems of the region.  The University is relentless in its efforts in maintaining standards in teaching and research, ensuring proper character building and development among the students, encouraging community developmental programmes, nurturing leadership in young men and women and imbibing a sense of responsibility to become good citizens, while striving for excellence in all fronts.

      

As a sequel to this, the University has always subjected itself for continuous self-evaluation for maintaining standards and to reach set targets.  Further, to assure quality in Higher Education the University has gone through the process of assessment and accreditation by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) in April 2002. The Peer Committee has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the institution and has assessed the University with ‘A' grade awarding it with the best percentage among the State Universities of Andhra Pradesh. The University designed and implemented Quality Management System successfully and became the first general University in the country to get ISO 9001: 2000 Certification in 2006.

 

      The University Presently is Offering 313 Courses in Arts, Commerce, Management, Science & Technology, Engineering, Law, Pharmacy and Education. The University has five constituent colleges and four AU Campuses.   The Colleges of Arts and Commerce is the biggest constituent college in the University with 26 Departments offering 42 courses including four Diploma Courses.  The College of Science and Technology has 21 Departments, which offers 63 Courses including one PG Diploma.  The College of Engineering has 15 Departments offering Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Research Programmes.  The College of Law has been identified as an advanced Center in Law by UGC.  The college of Pharmaceutical Sciences is first of its kind in South India, which is offering one UG Programme and six PG Programmes, besides Research Programmes leading to Ph.D. Degree. The AU campus at Kakinada (East Godavari District) has  five Departments and the AU Campus at Etcherla (Srikakulam Dist) has Eleven Departments. The AU Campus at Tadepalli Gudem has four departments and AU Campus at Vizianagaram has five Departments.

The University is spread in a sprawling campus of 422 acres dotted with 121 buildings of Academic, Administrative and support services with a plinth area of about 20 lakhs sq.ft., and 324 staff quarters.  Presently the University catering the Educational needs of five green districts of Andhra Pradesh namely Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Vizinagaram and Srikakulam.

      

The University campus is having 23 hostels for men which can accommodate more than 3200 students and 10 hostels exclusively for women with a capacity of more than 2000 seats. Two Hostels are specially constructed for foreign students. The University has also two Residential Health Centres one at south campus and the other at north campus and a homoeo  Dispensary.  The University has four Guest Houses, Central Canteen and four canteens at various locations, Press and Publication division, Women Waiting Halls, Faculty Club and Schools for Employees Children. 

      The University is also having student  services and welfare centres in the campus like post and Telegraph office, Banking facilities, University employment and Guidance bureau, training and placement centre and a sports complex including a Gymnasium Hall.

      

The other infrastructural facilities available in the University include Academic Staff College, Computer Centre and Press & Publications division. The University is also having 25 Research centers/institution in the campus like Agro- Economic research Centre, Centre for Religious studies, Centre for Women s Studies, Delta studies Institute , Institute of public sector management, Institute for yoga and Consciousness and population Research Centre, OASTC, Bay of Bengal, etc.,            

      

The University has started school of Distance Education in the campus in 1972. It offers Courses ranging from Certificate Courses to Post Graduate and Professional Courses. The School of Distance Education presently offering 4 UG Programs, 18 PG Programs, 5 Certification Courses, 9 PG Diploma Courses, 15 Professional Courses and 7 Collaborative Courses through Distance Education Mode.  The School has 35 study centres across the State.  The enrolment in UG, PG, and Professional Programmes in the School of Distance Education is about 80,000 students. The School has 23 permanent faculty. It is Equipped with the latest infrastructure.

 

        The University has well experienced and export faculty known world wide for their research contributions. There are 354 Professors, 198 Associate. Professors and 115 Asst. Professors serving the University. Organization of International and National events is a regular feature of the University.   There are more than 2500 support staff working in the University.

      The alumni of the University occupy important positions in government administration, Industry and research organizations with in and out side the country.  The Government of Andhra Pradesh has appointed the professors of the University as chairman and vice-chairman of the APSCHE and presently ten Universities had Vice-chancellors from Andhra University.    

      

The University has recently organized the 95 th session of the Indian Science Congress, from 3 rd to 7 th January, 2008.  The Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh has inaugurated the Congress and in his address he refered to the University as a Magnificient University and has all appreciation for the way the mega event was organized. 

       

      There are 636 affiliated colleges spread across five districts under the territorial jurisdiction of Andhra University.  The enrolment in Affiliated Colleges is more than 1.5 Lakhs.

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